Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

  • Eduardo LopezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_78


Rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation; Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique for stimulating cells of the cerebral cortex and inducing an electrical current through a magnetic coil that produces neuronal depolarization and generation of an evoked response in a peripheral muscle.

Current Knowledge

TMS was originally used to map cortical motor control and hemispheric dominance and also has applicability as an alternative method of clinical treatment. Initially introduced by Merton and Morton in 1980, the transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) produced a brief, high-voltage electric shock over the primary motor cortex (M1) followed by a brief, relatively synchronous muscle response, the motor evoked potential (MEP). TES was thought to be useful for different purposes but also found to be painful. In 1985, Barker et al. improved the technique and demonstrated it was possible to stimulate the...

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References and Readings

  1. Conforto, A. B., Marie, S. K., Cohen, L. G., & Scaff, M. (2003). Transcranial magnetic stimulation [in Portuguese]. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 61(1), 146–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hallett, M. (2007). Transcranial magnetic stimulation: A prime. Neuron, 55(2), 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Janicak, P. G., Dowd, S. M., Martis, B., et al. (2002). Repetitive magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: Preliminary results of a randomized trial. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 659–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Peselow, E. D. (2006). Other pharmacological and biological therapies. In B. J. Sadock & V. A. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (p. 2990). Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
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  6. Vernet, M., Bashir, S., Enam, S. F., et al. (2013). Electrophysiological Techniques. In N. D. Zasler, D. I. Katz, & R. D. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (pp. 1281–1285). New York: Demos Medical Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rehabilitation MedicineNew York Medical College, Metropolitan HospitalNew YorkUSA