Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

  • Linda McWhorterEmail author
  • Susan K. Johnson
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_579


Temporomandibular disease and TMJ; Temporomandibular dysfunction; Temporomandibular joint disorder

Short Description

The temporomandibular joint, where the lower jaw or mandible connects with the skull, is located in front of each ear. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) can be caused by injury to the joint, degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and parafunction of the jaw (tooth grinding/clenching), and in some cases there is no known cause. Symptoms include jaw pain, headaches, limited range of motion, the jaw getting “stuck” in the open or closed position, and/or popping and clicking sounds on opening. These symptoms can interfere with speech, eating, and sleeping, resulting in additional psychosocial effects and health risks (Table 1).
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction, Table 1

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Group I

Group II (left and right)

Group III (left and right)

Myofascial pain disorder

 Ia. Myofascial pain

 Ib. Myofascial pain with limited opening


This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Reading

  1. Aaron, L. A., Herrell, R., Ashton, S., Belcort, M., Schmaling, K., Goldberg, J., et al. (2001). Comorbid clinical conditions in chronic fatigue: A co-twin control study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(1), 24–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Armijo-Olivo, S., Pitance, L., Singh, V., Neto, F., Thie, N., & Michelotti, A. (2016). Effectiveness of manual therapy and therapeutic exercise for temporomandibular disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Physical Therapy, 96, 9–25.  https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20140548.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernhart, O., Biffar, R., Kocher, T., & Meyer, G. (2007). Prevalence and clinical signs of degenerative temporomandibular joint changes validated by manetic resonance imaging in a non-patient group. Annals of Anatomy, 189(4), 342–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buescher, J. J. (2007). Temporomandibular joint disorders. American Family Physician, 76(10), 1477–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. de Leeuw, R., Studts, J. L., & Carlson, C. R. (2005). Fatigue and fatigue-related symptoms in an orofacial pain population. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology, 99, 168–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Department of Oral Medicine, Orofacial Pain Research Group, University of Washington (n.d.). Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. Retrieved 26 June 2016 from International Consortium for RDC/TMD-Based Research Web site. http://www.rdc-tmdinternational.org.
  7. John, M. T., Reissmann, D. R., Schierz, O., & Wassell, R. W. (2007). Oral health-related quality of life in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 21(1), 46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Michelotti, A., Alstergren, P., Goulet, J. P., Lobbezoo, F., Ohrbach, R., Peck, C., Schiffman, E., & List, T. (2016). Next steps in development of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD): Recommendations from the international RDC/TMD consortium network workshop. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 43, 453–467.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Peck, C. C., Goulet, J. P., Lobbezoo, F., Schiffman, E. L., Alstergren, P., Anderson, G. C., de Leeuw, R., Jensen, R., Michelotti, A., Ohrbach, R., Petersson, A., & List, T. (2014). Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 41, 2–23.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12132.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Pertes, R. A., & Gross, S. G. (1995). Clinical management of temporo mandibular disorders and orofacial pain. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  11. Phillips, J. M., Gatchel, R. J., Wesley, A. L., & Ellis, E., III. (2001). Clinical implications of sex in acute temporomandibular disorders. Journal of the American Dental Association, 132(1), 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rammelsberg, P., LeResche, L., Dworkin, S., & Mancl, L. (2003). Longitudinal outcome of temporomandibular disorders: A 5-year epidemiologic study of muscle disorders defined by research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 17(10), 9–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Schiffman, E., Ohrbach, R., Truelove, E., et al. (2014). Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: Recommendations of the international RDC/TMD consortium network and orofacial pain special interest group. Journal of Oral Facial Pain and Headache, 28, 6–27.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Yap, A. U., Dworkin, S. F., Chua, E. K., List, T., Tan, K. B., & Tan, H. H. (2003). Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder subtypes, psychologic [sic] distress, and psychosocial dysfunction in Asian patients. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 17(1), 21–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA