Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Lyme Disease

  • John HalperinEmail author
  • Lauren B. Krupp
  • Patricia Melville
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_563

Synonyms

Borreliosis

Short Description or Definition

Lyme disease, caused primarily by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the USA, and by the closely related spirochetes B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, is transmitted by hard-shelled Ixodes ticks. Typically, 3–30 days after the tick bite, there is a slowly expanding flat rash, known as erythema migrans (EM) which often has a central clear area giving it a “bull’s-eye” appearance. In children this rash occurs in up to 90% of infected individuals (Pediatric Lyme Disease Study Group et al. 1996); in others it either does not occur or goes unnoticed. The infection can disseminate, causing multisystem involvement. The Lyme disease case definition (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997) is a person with EM or with at least one characteristic late manifestation and laboratory confirmation of the infection.

Categorization of Systemic and Neurological Involvement

Infection may be accompanied by fatigue and malaise. Disseminated...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Adams, W. V., Rose, C. D., Eppes, S. C., & Klein, J. D. (1994). Cognitive effects of Lyme disease in children. Pediatrics, 94(2 Pt 1), 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benke, T., Gasse, T., Hittmair-Delazer, M., & Schmutzhard, E. (1995). Lyme encephalopathy: Long-term neuropsychological deficits years after acute neuroborreliosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 91(5), 353–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berende, A., ter Hofstede, H. J., Vos, F. J., van Middendorp, H., Vogelaar, M. L., Tromp, M., … Kullberg, B. J. (2016). Randomized trial of longer-term therapy for symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 374(13), 1209–1220.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1505425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloom, B. J., Wyckoff, P. M., Meissner, H. C., & Steere, A. C. (1998). Neurocognitive abnormalities in children after classic manifestations. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 17(3), 189–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bujak, D. I., Weinstein, A., & Dornbush, R. L. (1996). Clinical and neurocognitive features of the post Lyme syndrome. The Journal of Rheumatology, 23(8), 1392–1397.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Cairns, V., & Godwin, J. (2005). Post-Lyme borreliosis syndrome: A meta-analysis of reported symptoms. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(6), 1340–1345.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997). Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 46(RR-10), 1–55.Google Scholar
  8. Dersch, R., Sarnes, A. A., Maul, M., Hottenrott, T., Baumgartner, A., Rauer, S., & Stich, O. (2015). Quality of life, fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Journal of Neurology, 262(11), 2572–2577.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-015-7891-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dersch, R., Sommer, H., Rauer, S., & Meerpohl, J. J. (2016). Prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms in Lyme neuroborreliosis after pharmacological treatment: A systematic review. Journal of Neurology, 263(1), 17–24.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-015-7923-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fallon, B. A., Keilp, J. G., Corbera, K. M., Petkova, E., Britton, C. B., Dwyer, E., … Sackeim, H. A. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology, 70, 992–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fernandez, R. E., Rothberg, M., Ferencz, G., & Wujack, D. (1990). Lyme disease of the CNS: MR imaging findings in 14 cases. AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 11(3), 479–481.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Garin, C., & Bujadoux, A. (1922). Paralysie par les tiques. Journal de Médecine de Lyon, 71, 765–767.Google Scholar
  13. Gaudino, E. A., Coyle, P. K., & Krupp, L. B. (1997). Post-Lyme syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychiatric similarities and differences. Archives of Neurology, 54(11), 1372–1376.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Halperin, J. J., Luft, B. J., Anand, A. K., Roque, C. T., Alvarez, O., Volkman, D. J., & Dattwyler, R. J. (1989). Lyme neuroborreliosis: Central nervous system manifestations. Neurology, 39(6), 753–759.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Halperin, J. J., Shapiro, E. D., Logigian, E. L., Belman, A. L., Dotevall, L., Wormser, G. P., … Bever, C. (2007). Practice parameter: Treatment of nervous system Lyme disease. Neurology, 69(1), 91–102.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Hassett, A. L., Shlimbaum, T., Radvanski, D. C., Herman, D. J., Nahass, R., Buyske, S., & Sigal, L. H. (2010). A prospective, longitudinal cohort study evaluating psychosocial risk and protective factors for post Lyme disease syndrome. Paper presented at the ACR.Google Scholar
  17. Hattingen, E., Weidauer, S., Kieslich, M., Boda, V., & Zanella, F. E. (2004). MR imaging in neuroborreliosis of the cervical spinal cord. European Radiology, 14(11), 2072–2075.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Hinckley, A. F., Connally, N. P., Meek, J. I., Johnson, B. J., Kemperman, M. M., Feldman, K. A., … Mead, P. S. (2014). Lyme disease testing by large commercial laboratories in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(5), 676–681.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu397.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hurley, R. A., & Taber, K. H. (2008). Acute and chronic Lyme disease: Controversies for neuropsychiatry. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 20(1), iv–i6.  https://doi.org/10.1176/jnp.2008.20.1.iv.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kalina, P., Decker, A., Kornel, E., & Halperin, J. J. (2005). Lyme disease of the brainstem. Neuroradiology, 47(12), 903–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaplan, R. F., Meadows, M. E., Vincent, L. C., Logigian, E. L., & Steere, A. C. (1992). Memory impairment and depression in patients with Lyme encephalopathy: Comparison with fibromyalgia and nonpsychotically depressed patients. Neurology, 42(7), 1263–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaplan, R. F., Trevino, R. P., Johnson, G. M., Levy, L., Dornbush, R., Hu, L. T., … Klempner, M. S. (2003). Cognitive function in post-treatment Lyme disease: Do additional antibiotics help? Neurology, 60(12), 1916–1922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klempner, M. S., Hu, L. T., Evans, J., Schmid, C. H., Johnson, G. M., Trevino, R. P., … Weinstein, A. (2001). Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(2), 85–92.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200107123450202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krupp, L. B., Masur, D., Schwartz, J., Coyle, P. K., Langenbach, L. J., Fernquist, S., … Halperin, J. J. (1991). Cognitive functioning in late Lyme borreliosis. Archives of Neurology, 48, 1125–1129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Krupp, L. B., Hyman, L. G., Grimson, R., Coyle, P. K., Melville, P., Ahnn, S., … Chandler, B. (2003). Study and treatment of post Lyme disease (STOP-LD): A randomized double masked clinical trial. Neurology, 60(12), 1923–1930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Logigian, E. L., Kaplan, R. F., & Steere, A. C. (1990). Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 323(21), 1438–1444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ogrinc, K., Lusa, L., Lotric-Furlan, S., Bogovic, P., Stupica, D., Cerar, T., … Strle, F. (2016). Course and outcome of early European Lyme neuroborreliosis (Bannwarth syndrome): Clinical and laboratory findings. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 63(3), 346–353.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pediatric Lyme Disease Study Group, Gerber, M. A., Shapiro, E. D., Burke, G. S., Parcells, V. J., & Bell, G. L. (1996). Lyme disease in children in southeastern Connecticut. The New England Journal of Medicine, 335(17), 1270–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pollina, D. A., Elkins, L. E., Squires, N. K., Scheffer, S. R., & Krupp, L. B. (1999). Does process-specific slowing account for cognitive deficits in Lyme disease? Applied Neuropsychology, 6(1), 27–32.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324826an0601_4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Wormser, G. P., Dattwyler, R. J., Shapiro, E. D., Halperin, J. J., Steere, A. C., Klempner, M. S., … Nadelman, R. B. (2006). The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis: Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43, 1089–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wormser, G. P., Weitzner, E., McKenna, D., Nadelman, R. B., Scavarda, C., Molla, I., … Nowakowski, J. (2015a). Long-term assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with culture-confirmed early Lyme disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(2), 244–247.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wormser, G. P., Weitzner, E., McKenna, D., Nadelman, R. B., Scavarda, C., & Nowakowski, J. (2015b). Long-term assessment of fatigue in patients with culture-confirmed Lyme disease. The American Journal of Medicine, 128(2), 181–184.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.09.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Halperin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lauren B. Krupp
    • 2
  • Patricia Melville
    • 2
  1. 1.Overlook Medical Center, Atlantic Health SystemSummitUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neuropsychology ResearchStony Brook University SUNY Stony BrookStony BrookUSA