Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Lyme Disease

  • John HalperinEmail author
  • Lauren B. Krupp
  • Patricia Melville
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_563



Short Description or Definition

Lyme disease, caused primarily by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the USA, and by the closely related spirochetes B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, is transmitted by hard-shelled Ixodes ticks. Typically, 3–30 days after the tick bite, there is a slowly expanding flat rash, known as erythema migrans (EM) which often has a central clear area giving it a “bull’s-eye” appearance. In children this rash occurs in up to 90% of infected individuals (Pediatric Lyme Disease Study Group et al. 1996); in others it either does not occur or goes unnoticed. The infection can disseminate, causing multisystem involvement. The Lyme disease case definition (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997) is a person with EM or with at least one characteristic late manifestation and laboratory confirmation of the infection.

Categorization of Systemic and Neurological Involvement

Infection may be accompanied by fatigue and malaise. Disseminated...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Halperin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lauren B. Krupp
    • 2
  • Patricia Melville
    • 2
  1. 1.Overlook Medical Center, Atlantic Health SystemSummitUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neuropsychology ResearchStony Brook University SUNY Stony BrookStony BrookUSA