Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Hypothyroidism

  • Jane AustinEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_559

Synonyms

Autoimmune thyroiditis; Congenital hypothyroidism; Cretinism; Goitrous hypothyroidism; Hashimoto disease; Hashimoto thyroiditis; Hypothyrodisis; Hypothyroidea; Idiopathic hypothyroidism; Primary hypothyroidism; Secondary hypothyroidism; Subclinical hypothyroidism; Thyroiditis

Definition

Hypothyroidism is a disorder of the endocrine system, which is a result of insufficient thyroid hormone.

Current Knowledge

Hypothyroid Disorder

Hypothyroidism refers to the insufficient production of thyroid hormones. Primary hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce adequate amounts of thyroid hormone. Secondary causes of hypothyroidism occur when the pituitary gland fails to release adequate levels of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) or when the hypothalamus does not release sufficient thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Devdhar et al. 2007). Hypothyroidism can be acquired or congenital and varies in severity ranging from subclinical to clinical manifestations...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. (2002). American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocrine Practice, 8, 457–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Col, N. F., Surks, M. I., & Daniels, G. H. (2004). Subclinical thyroid disease: Clinical applications. JAMA, 291, 239–243.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Devdhar, M., Ousman, Y. H., & Burman, K. D. (2007). Hypothyroidism. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 6, 595–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dugbartey, A. T. (1998). Neurocognitive aspects of hypothyroidism. Archives of Internal Medicine, 158, 1413–1418.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Garber, J. R., Cobin, R. H., Gharib, H., Hennessey, J. V., Klein, I., Mechanick, J. I., & Woeber, K. A. (2012). Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: Cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocrine Practice, 18(6), 989–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gerstein, H. C. (1990). How common is postpartum thyroiditis? A methodologic overview of the literature. Archives of Internal Medicine, 150, 1397–1400.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Helfand, M. (2004). Screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in nonpregnant adults: A summary of the evidence for the U.S. preventive services task force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 128–141.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Hollowell, J. G., Staehling, N. W., Flanders, W. D., Hannon, W. H., Gunter, E. W., Spencer, C. A., et al. (2002). Serum TSH, T(4), and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 489–499.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Ladenson, P. W., Singer, P. A., Ain, K. B., Bagchi, N., Bigos, S. T., Levy, E. G., et al. (2000). American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 1573–1575.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Roberts, C. G. P., & Ladenson, P. W. (2004). Hypothyroidism. Lancet, 363, 793–803.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Surks, M. I., Ortiz, E., Daniels, G. H., Sawin, C. T., Col, N. F., Cobin, R. H., et al. (2004). Subclinical thyroid disease: Scientific review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. JAMA, 14, 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wekking, E. M., Appelhof, B. C., Fliers, E., Schene, A. H., Huyser, J., Tijssen, J. G. P., et al. (2005). Cognitive functioning and well-being in euthyroid patients on thyroxine replacement therapy for primary hypothyroidism. European Journal of Endocrinology, 15, 747–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA