Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Circadian Rhythms

  • Bruce J. DiamondEmail author
  • Walter Barr
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_546

Synonyms

Biological cycles; Biorhythms; Circadian clock

Short Description or Definition

One of the pervasive characteristics of living organisms are rhythmic biological and behavioral changes, which are expressed at varying levels of organization ranging from the cellular to highly complex multicellular systems. These rhythms are generally referred to as circadian rhythms, and they organize a variety of behaviors, including sleep, which is, for example, characterized by a 90-min rapid eye movement (REM) cycle and the wakefulness–sleep cycle, which is organized around an approximate 24-h cycle (Carlson 1999).

Categorization

The core body temperature rhythm and the sleep–wake cycle are among the most extensively studied of the human biorhythms (Weinert 2010) with the 24-h circadian rhythms figuring prominently in the literature. These rhythms impact daily life (e.g., work, school, medical–psychological status) and are of relatively brief duration, so they are amenable to study (Clark 2005...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Carlson, N. R. (1999). Foundations of physiological psychology (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  2. Chan, M.-C., Spieth, P. M., Quinn, K., Parotto, M., Zhang, H., & Slutsky, A. S. (2012). Circadian rhythms: From basic mechanisms to the intensive care unit. Critical Care Medicine, 40(1), 246–253.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e31822f0abe.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Clark, A. V. (Ed.). (2005). Causes, role and influence of mood states. Hauppauge: Nova Biomedical Books.Google Scholar
  4. Costa, G. (1999). Fatigue and biological rhythms. In D. J. Garland, J. A. Wise, & D. V. Hopkin (Eds.), Handbook of aviation human factors (pp. 235–255). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Golombek, D. A., & Rosenstein, R. E. (2010). Physiology of circadian entrainment. Physiological Reviews, 90(3), 1063–1102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hasher, L., Goldstein, D., & May, C. P. (2005). It’s about time: Circadian rhythms, memory, and aging. In C. Izawa & N. Ohta (Eds.), Human learning and memory: Advances in theory and application: The 4th Tsukuba international conference on memory (pp. 199–217). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Huang, W., Ramsey, K. M., Marcheva, B., & Bass, J. (2011). Circadian rhythms, sleep, and metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 121(6), 2133.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson, C.H. (2004). Precise circadian clocks in prokaryotic cyanobacteria. Curr Issues Mol Biol 6, 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. (2009). An introduction to brain and behavior (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Lee-Chiong, T. L. (2005). Sleep: A comprehensive handbook. Hoboken: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. LeGates, T. A., Fernandez, D. C., & Hattar, S. (2014). Light as a central modulator of circadian rhythms, sleep and affect. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15(7), 443–454.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Newman, C. F. (2006). Bipolar disorder. In F. Andrasik (Ed.), Comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology, Adult psychopathology (Vol. 2, pp. 244–261). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Quigg, M. (2006). Circadian rhythms: Problems with the body clock. In N. F. Watson & B. V. Vaughn (Eds.), Clinicians guide to sleep disorders (pp. 277–304). Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  14. Sigurdardottir, L. G., Valdimarsdottir, U. A., Fall, K., Rider, J. R., Lockley, S. W., Schernhammer, E. S., & Mucci, L. A. (2012). Circadian disruption, sleep loss and prostate cancer risk: A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 21(7), 1002–1011.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Waterhouse, J. M., & DeCoursey, P. J. (2004). Human circadian organization. In J. C. Dunlap, J. J. Loros, & P. J. DeCoursey (Eds.), Chronobiology: Biological timekeeping (pp. 291–323). Sunderland: Sinauer.Google Scholar
  16. Weinert, D. (2010). Circadian temperature variation and ageing. Ageing Research Reviews, 9(1), 51–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Wilson, S. J., Nutt, D., Alford, C., Argyropoulos, S., Baldwin, D., Bateson, D., Britton, T., Crowe, C., Dijk, D., Espie, C., Gringras, P., Hajak, G., Idzikowski, C., Krystal, A., Nash, J., Selsick, H., Sharpley, A., & Wade, A. (2010). British Association for Psychopharmacology consensus statement on evidence-based treatment of insomnia, parasomnias and circadian rhythm disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24(11), 1577–1601. ISSN 0269-8811.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA