Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

  • Bruce J. DiamondEmail author
  • William Tsang
  • Cody Curatolo
  • Savannah Crippen
  • C. Michael Nina
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_538

Short Description or Definition

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Portegies and Berger 2007). HIV is a viral pathogen that targets CD4+ T cells (also called T4 or T helper cells), which are lymphocyte cells with cluster determinant 4 + surface receptor sites, originating in the thymus of the human body’s immune system. HIV is known to cause damage to the immune system as well as the central nervous system. The exact cause of this damage is unclear, but explanatory models have been proposed. For example, the “Trojan horse” or neuroinflammation model is thought to involve immune system cells known as macrophages which conceal and convey HIV into the brain, where they can disrupt supportive brain cells such as astrocytes and microglia. In the neuroinflammation model, the body’s overstimulated immune system causes an increased production of CD14+ CD16+ monocytes which flood the brain, causing...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce J. Diamond
    • 1
    Email author
  • William Tsang
    • 1
  • Cody Curatolo
    • 1
  • Savannah Crippen
    • 1
  • C. Michael Nina
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA