Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Jennifer C. G. LarsonEmail author
  • Yana Suchy
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_524


Brain disease


Encephalopathy is a nonspecific term that refers to diffuse dysfunction within the brain that causes disturbances in function and mental status. Encephalopathy can also be associated with either morphological changes within the brain or metabolic imbalances. It originates from a variety of factors including, but not limited to, genetic susceptibility/mutation, traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular accident, psychiatric disorders, toxic agents, and systemic disease. Encephalopathy can either be acute (i.e., sudden onset such as metabolic encephalopathy or traumatic brain injury), chronic (i.e., gradual deterioration such as dementia, HIV, or schizophrenia), or static (i.e., a nonprogressive abnormality such as mental retardation).


References and Reading

  1. Blumenfeld, H. (2010). Neuroanatomy through clinical cases, 2nd edition. Sutherland: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Kumar, V., Fausto, N., & Abbas, A. (2004). Robbins & Cotran pathologic basis of disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA