Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Parkinson’s Dementia

  • Matthew KraybillEmail author
  • Yana Suchy
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_504


Parkinson’s disease


Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) is a progressive neurocognitive disorder that is characterized by a decline in cognitive functioning that develops more than 1 year after a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. If significant cognitive decline precedes the onset of parkinsonian motor symptoms (i.e., resting tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability), then the criteria may be met for the related disorder, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (Goldmann Gross et al. 2008). There is an ongoing debate in the current literature about whether PDD and DLB are distinct entities or whether they lie on the same disease spectrum, as they are characterized by overlapping motor symptoms, cognitive profiles, neuropathological features, and clinical course (see section “Current Knowledge” for more details) (Aarsland et al. 2004; Goldmann Gross et al. 2008; Lippa et al. 2007).

Historical Background

The clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease have...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Aarsland, D., Ballard, C. G., & Halliday, G. (2004). Are Parkinson’s disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies the same entity? Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 17(3), 137–145.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Aarsland, D., Ballard, C., Rongve, A., Broadstock, M., & Svenningsson, P. (2012). Clinical trials of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 12(5), 492–501.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbas, N. R. (2006). Cognitive, affective, and psychiatric features of Parkinson’s disease. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 22(4), 773–796. v-vi.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Caballol, N., Marti, M. J., & Tolosa, E. (2007). Cognitive dysfunction and dementia in Parkinson disease. Movement Disorders, 22(Suppl. 17), S358–S366.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Emre, M., Aarsland, D., Brown, R., Burn, D. J., Duychaerts, C., Mizuno, Y., Broe, G. A., Cummings, J., Dickson, D. W., Gauthier, S., Goldman, J., Goetz, C., Korczyn, A., Lees, A., Levy, R., Litvan, I., McKeith, I., Olanow, W., Poewe, W., Quinn, N., Sampaio, C., Tolosa, E., & Dubois, B. (2007). Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 22(12), 1689–1707.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Finkel, S. I., Costa e Silva, J., Cohen, G., Miller, S., & Sartorius, N. (1996). Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia: A consensus statement on current knowledge and implications for research and treatment. International Psychogeriatrics, 8(Suppl. 3), 497–500.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Gallagher, C., Bell, B., Bendlin, B., Palotti, M., Okonkwo, O., Sodhi, A., Wong, R., Buyan-Dent, L., Johnson, S., Wilette, A., Harding, S., Ninmna, N., Kastman, E., & Alexander, A. (2013). White matter microstructural integrity and executive function in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19(3), 349–354.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Goldmann Gross, R., Siderowf, A., & Hurtig, H. I. (2008). Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: A spectrum of disease. Neurosignals, 16(1), 24–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Halliday, G. M., Leverenz, J. B., Schneider, J. S., & Adler, C. H. (2014). The neurobiological basis of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 29(5), 634–650.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Irwin, D. J., White, M. T., Toledo, J. B., Xie, S. X., Robinson, J. L., Van Deerlin, V., Lee, V. M., Leverenz, J. B., Montine, T. J., Duda, J., Hurtig, H. I., & Trojanowski, J. Q. (2012). Neuropathologic substrates of Parkinson disease dementia. Annals of Neurology, 72(4), 587–598.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Lippa, C. F., Duda, J. E., Grossman, M., Hurtig, H. I., Aarsland, D., Boeve, B. F., et al. (2007). DLB and PDD boundary issues: Diagnosis, treatment, molecular pathology, and biomarkers. Neurology, 68(11), 812–819.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Litvan, I., Goldman, J. G., Tröster, A. I., Schmand, B. A., Weintraub, D., Petersen, R. C., Mollenhauer, B., Adler, C. H., Marder, K., Williams-Gray, C. H., Aarsland, D., Kulisevsky, J., Rodriguez-Oroz, M. C., Burn, D. J., Barker, R. A., & Emre, M. (2012). Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Movement Disorder Society task force guidelines. Movement Disorders, 27(3), 349–356.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Louis, E. D., & Bennett, D. A. (2007). Mild Parkinsonian signs: An overview of an emerging concept. Movement Disorders, 22(12), 1681–1688.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Massano, J., & Garrett, C. (2012). Deep brain stimulation and cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease: A clinical review. Frontiers of Neurology, 3, 66.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2012.00066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Masterman, D., & Swanberg, M. (2003). Neurologic aspects of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia. In P. A. Lichtenberg, D. L. Murman, & A. M. Mellow (Eds.), Handbook of dementia: Psychological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Mayeux, R., & Marder, K. (1996). Putative clinical and genetic antecedents of dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. In R. J. Perry, I. G. McKeith, & E. Perry (Eds.), Dementia with Lewy bodies (pp. 33–45). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McKeith, I. G. (2000). Spectrum of Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Neurologic Clinics, 18(4), 865–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McKeith, I. G., Dickson, D. W., Lowe, J., Emre, M., O’Brien, J. T., Feldman, H., et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: Third report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology, 65(12), 1863–1872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NeuropsychologyCottage Rehabilitation HospitalSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA