Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

  • Cindy B. IvanhoeEmail author
  • Ana Durand Sanchez
  • Nathan D. Zasler
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_49


MRS; Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy


Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive study used to characterize tissues of the body. Like magnetic resonance imaging, MRS is based on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance. It allows evaluation of metabolic activity in vivo.

Current Knowledge

MRS uses signals from metabolites such as N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine (Cr), glutamate, glutamine, lipids, amino acids, and lactate in the tissue examined. MRI uses signals from hydrogen. MRS is most commonly used to evaluate disorders of the central nervous system, but its indications and uses have been increasing with increasing frequency. MRS is not specific, but should be used in combination with clinical information and MRI. It has been shown to be helpful in diagnosing certain diseases. The results of MRS are graphed. The spectrum of resonances (peaks) is displayed on the x-axis as parts per million (ppm), and the amplitudes are measured on the y-axis...

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References and Readings

  1. Birur, B., Kraguljac, N. V., Shelton, R. C., & Lahti, A. C. (2017). Brain structure, function, and neurochemistry in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder-a systematic review of the magnetic resonance neuroimaging literature. NPJ Schizophrenia, 3, 15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Gujar, S. K., Maheshwari, S., Björkman-Burtscher, I., & Sundgren, P. C. (2005). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, 25(3), 217–226.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Nitchingham, A., Kumar, V., Shenkin, S., Ferguson, K. J., & Caplan, G. A. (2017). A systematic review of neuroimaging in delirium: predictors, correlates and consequences. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  4. Smith, J. K., Londono, A., Castillo, M., & Kwock, L. (2002). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain-stem lesions. Neuroradiology, 44, 825–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Uzan, M., Albayram, S., Dashti, S. G. R., Aydin, S., Hanci, M., & Kuday, C. (2003). Thalamic proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vegetative state induced by traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 74, 33–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cindy B. Ivanhoe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ana Durand Sanchez
    • 2
  • Nathan D. Zasler
    • 3
  1. 1.Neurorehabilitation Specialists Baylor College of MedicineThe Institute for Rehabilitation and ResearchHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Physical Medicine and RehabilitationBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Concussion Care Centre of Virginia, Ltd.RichmondUSA