Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Anna DePold HohlerEmail author
  • Marcus Ponce de Leon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_473


Slowness of movements


Parkinsonism is characterized by four cardinal features. They include tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and gait problems. Symptom onset is classically unilateral. The tremor is most pronounced at rest. Parkinson’s disease is the most common cause of Parkinsonism. The diagnosis of probable Parkinson’s disease is made by the demonstration of most of the cardinal features of Parkinsonism, an asymmetrical onset, and a symptomatic response to levodopa or a dopamine agonist. Exclusion criteria for Parkinson’s disease include exposure to medications known to cause Parkinsonism (neuroleptics and antiemetics), cerebellar deficits, a history of significant strokes, corticospinal tract signs, and oculomotor deficits other than slight limitation of upward gaze.


References and Readings

  1. Pahwa, R., & Lyons, K. E. (2007). Handbook of Parkinson’s disease (4th ed.). New York: Informa Healthcare USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Boston University Medical CenterBostonUSA
  2. 2.Madigan Army Medical CenterTacomaUSA