Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Amy J. ArmstrongEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_386
The process of supporting or acting on behalf of a cause, facilitating equal community access and participation of individuals or groups that have typically been socially and/or economically marginalized. There are several types of advocacy to include:

Systems advocacy: the process in which any system (public, private, community based) is made more responsive to the needs of the individual served by the system. This process may include increasing awareness of services and resources available within a community, identifying unmet needs of individuals, identifying existing barriers that impede access to community services and resources, and developing strategies to eliminate legislative, regulatory, social and economic barriers that may impede access to one’s community supports and resources.

Individual advocacy: the process of increasing awareness of unmet needs and procuring rights or benefits on behalf of another individual or group of individuals.

Self-advocacy: the process of...

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References and Readings

  1. Dell Orto, A. E., & Marinelli, R. P. (Eds.). (1995). Encyclopedia of disability and rehabilitation. New York: MacMillian Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Test, D., Fowler, C. H., Wood, W. M., Brewer, D. M., & Eddy, S. (2005). Conceptual framework of self-advocacy for students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 26, 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Wehmeyer, M. L. (2004). Self-determination and the empowerment of people with disabilities. American Rehabilitation, 28, 22–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation CounselingVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA