Autonomic dysregulation; Brain storming; Diencephalic seizures; Tonic fit
The autonomic nervous system is of prime importance in regulation of the heart rate and contractility. After acute trauma, an immediate sympathetic surge with massive catecholamine response occurs to compensate for the effects of the injury. Cardiac abnormalities have been previously correlated with significant increases (threefold or greater) in plasma catecholamine levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage with the degree of catecholamine release directly related to the severity of the brain injury (Clifton and Ziegler 1981). Cardiac dysfunction as a result of hyperadrenergic state will be observed in 20% or more of the patients and characterized by global myocardial dysfunction, laboratory abnormalities, and electrocardiographic (EKG) changes. Development of ST-T wave changes as well as fatal ventricular arrhythmias are observed in these patients. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated...
References and Readings
- Takahashi, C., Hinson, H. E., & Baguley, I. J. (2015). Autonomic dysfunction syndromes after acute brain injury. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 128, 539–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63521-1.00034-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar