Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Martin R. GrafEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_351


Cranial aerocele; Cranial pneumocyst; Pneumatocele; Pneumocephalon; Pneumocranium


Pneumocephalus is the presence of air in the intracranial cavity. Air may be epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, or intracerebral. The most common cause of pneumocephalus is neuro-trauma. Other causes of pneumocephalus include tumors, infections, fistulous tract formation, and a complication from surgery. Symptoms of pneumocephalus include headache, lethargy, and disorientation. The air is usually absorbed by the body within hours to weeks. A major concern with pneumocephalus is infection, and antibiotics are often administered.


References and Readings

  1. Markham, J. W. (1967). The clinical features of pneumocephalus based upon a survey of 284 cases with report of 11 additional cases. Acta Neurochirurgica, 16, 1–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Steudel, W. I., & Hacker, H. (1986). Prognosis, incidence and management of acute traumatic intracranial pneumocephalus. Acta Neurochirurgica, 80, 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryVirginia Commonwealth University Medical CenterRichmondUSA