Paralysis agitans; PD
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor symptomatology, with tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and bradykinesia. The disease also involves a wide range of nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, and dysautonomia. Most of PD cases are idiopathic, but a small percentage of patients with the disease (3–5%) have genetic factors (Klein and Westenberger 2012). The causes of idiopathic PD are still unknown, but they seem to be related to both genetic and environmental factors (Kalia and Lang 2015). Interestingly, some factors are associated with an increased risk of developing PD such as exposure to pesticides or head injury and the exposure to both factors triples the risk of PD (Lee et al. 2012).
The neuropathological process of PD has been described by Braak and colleagues and divided into six stages (Braak et al. 2004). The stage 1is characterized by the...
References and Readings
- Goetz, C. G., Poewe, W., Rascol, O., et al. (2004). Movement disorder society task force report on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale: Status and recommendations the movement disorder society task force on rating scales for parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 19, 1020–1028.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar