Pneumothorax refers to the collapse of a lung that occurs in the context of chest trauma, excess pressure on the lungs, or from a sudden change in air pressure within or around the body. Pneumothorax is a potential medical emergency that can lead to coma owing to accumulation of air or gas in the chest cavity. Symptoms of pneumothorax can include shortness of breath, fatigue, rapid heart rate, sudden chest pain, chest tightness, and bluish tint to the skin. Pneumothorax is a risk factor for brain injury because reduced oxygen saturation of the blood results in reduced oxygen transit to the brain. If the brain does not receive adequate oxygen, even on a transient basis, ischemic damage to brain tissue (i.e., hypoxia) can occur. Certain areas of the brain are more vulnerable to brain injury or hypoxia. For instance, the CA1 region of the hippocampus, which is responsible for encoding and consolidating new information, is particularly vulnerable to...