Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Endotracheal Tube

  • Anuj SharmaEmail author
  • Alan Weintraub
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_25


Breathing tube; ETT


Endotracheal tube (ETT) is a tube placed into the trachea for mechanical ventilation and management of a patient’s airway. The tube is placed in the patient’s trachea to ensure a patent airway allowing oxygen, anesthetics, or gaseous medications to reach the lungs.

Current Knowledge

Intubation, usually performed with general anesthesia, is the process of inserting an ETT. A laryngoscope, which consists of a blade of varying shapes and sizes, a handle, and a light source, is an instrument used to help visualize the larynx and surrounding structures. A stylet, a malleable piece of metal placed inside the ETT, can also be used to aid intubation by providing stiffness and curvature at the end of the tube allowing for easier insertion. It is removed after intubation and the ETT is attached to a ventilator or self-inflating bag. Placement of the ETT is confirmed by auscultating both sides of the chest with a stethoscope.

Indications for ETT


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References and Readings

  1. Crankshaw, D., McViety, J., & Entwistle, M. (2014). A review of cuffed vs uncuffed endotracheal tubes in children. Pediatric Anesthesia and Critical Care Journal, 2(2), 70–73.Google Scholar
  2. Divatia, J. V., & Bhowmick, K. (2005). Complications of endotracheal intubations and other airway management procedures. Indian Journal Anaesthesia, 49(4), 308–318.Google Scholar
  3. Finucane, B. T., & Santora, A. H. (2003). Principles of airway management. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
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  6. Stewart, C. E. (2002). Advanced airway management. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall Publishing.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Virginia Commonwealth University School of MedicineRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Craig Hospital, Rocky Mountain Regional Brain Injury SystemEnglewoodUSA