A stroke that is caused by ischemia or hemorrhage in the midbrain, pons, or medulla is called a “brainstem stroke.” There are many brainstem stroke clinical syndromes, the presentation of each depending on the specific location in the brain stem that is involved. Most brainstem stroke syndromes result from ischemia due to partial blockage or complete occlusion of arteries in the vertebrobasilar system located at the posterior region of the brain.
Localization of the brainstem lesion can usually be made by recognizing the specific pattern of clinical deficits and understanding the anatomical basis for these clinical manifestations. Many of these strokes cause dysfunction of one or more of the many cranial nerves that originate from the brain stem. The specific clinical dysfunction, typically involving head and neck functions, localizes the tissue injury to the side that is ipsilateral to the clinical deficit. Some also involve motor or sensory deficits of...
References and Readings
- Dauby, J.-D. (1996). The diving bell and the butterfly: A memoir of life in death. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar