Arteriovenous malformations; AVMs
Vascular malformations are congenital birth defects that affect arteries or veins or both.
Various types of vascular malformations exist, including arteriovenous malformations, cavernous angiomas, venous malformations, and telangiectases. Although they are present at birth, they often do not present clinically until much later. They can cause clinical syndromes because they prevent the normal flow of sufficient oxygen-rich blood from filling the capillaries that supply tissues of the body, and also allow a buildup of waste products in the tissue that would normally be eliminated by the veins. Symptoms depend on the type and location of the malformation. Cerebral arteriovenous malformations have the most significant clinical implications and can cause seizure, headache, and neurological consequences of hemorrhagic stroke, including paralysis, loss of vision, and aphasia.
Diagnosis is made based on neuroimaging...