Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Ischemic Stroke

  • Elliot J. RothEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2187

Synonyms

Atherothrombotic brain infarction; Cerebral infarction

Definition

Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 80% of all events. It is caused by a blockage, usually as a consequence of atherosclerosis, of a blood vessel that normally provides blood supply to the brain.

Current Knowledge

The lack of oxygen in the brain tissue that results from the blockage causes either reversible injury (ischemia), if it is not prolonged or severe, or death or irreversible damage of the tissue (infarction) if the interruption of blood supply is prolonged and severe. The arterial blockage may derive primarily at the site of occlusion, in which case it is called a “thrombus.” Alternatively, it may arise elsewhere in the vascular system, usually in the heart, and leave that primary site, flow through the vessels until it encounters a narrow lumen, thereby closing off that area; in this case, it is called an “embolism.” About 60% of all strokes are thrombotic and 15–20%...

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References and Readings

  1. Ay, H., Furie, K. L., Singhal, A., Smith, W. S., Sorensen, A. G., et al. (2005). An evidence-based causative classification system for acute ischemic stroke. Annals of Neurology, 58, 688–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jackson, C. A., Hutchison, A., Dennis, M. S., Wardlaw, J. M., Lewis, S. C., & Sudlow, C. L. M. (2009). Differences between ischemic stroke subtypes in vascular outcomes support a distinct lacunar ischemic stroke arteriopathy: A prospective, hospital-based study. Stroke, 40, 3679–3684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA