Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Elliot J. RothEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2180


High blood pressure


Hypertension (or “high blood pressure”) is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated.

Current Knowledge

More than 90% of hypertension is “essential” or “primary,” with no associated medical cause. “Secondary hypertension” is the result of the presence of other conditions such as kidney disease or certain rare tumors. Persistent hypertension is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, and premature death. Acute elevations of blood pressure may cause hemorrhagic strokes or other neurologic syndromes. Dietary salt reduction, weight loss, and increased exercise can be effective in reducing elevated blood pressure and maintaining it at normal levels. Treatment often consists of the systematic and consistent use of select medications, of which there are many. Diuretics, vasodilators, beta-blockers, alpha-adrenergic antagonists,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Chobanian, A. V., Bakris, G. L., Black, H. R., Cushman, W. C., Green, L. A., Izzo, J. L., et al. (2003). National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee: Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension, 42, 1206–1252.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rosendorff, C., Black, H. R., Cannon, C. P., Gersh, B. J., Gore, J., Izzo, J. L., et al. (2007). Treatment of hypertension in the prevention and management of ischemic heart disease: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation, 115, 2761–2788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationNorthwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA