Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Hemorrhagic Stroke

  • Elliot J. RothEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2179


Brain hemorrhage; Cerebral hemorrhage


A hemorrhagic stroke results from extravasation of blood from blood vessels into the brain. This occurs when the vessel walls are weak, as occurs with sudden acute episodes of extreme high blood pressure or in the presence of cerebral arteriovenous malformations or aneurysms. There are two main types of hemorrhagic strokes: intracerebral hemorrhage causing bleeding into to the brain tissue itself and accounting for 10–15% of all strokes, and subarachnoid hemorrhage causing bleeding between the protective layers that surround the brain and accounting for about 5% of all strokes.

Intracerebral hemorrhages are most commonly caused by high blood pressure, but other causes exist as well, such as cocaine and amphetamine use, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral vasculitis, and bleeding disorders. Symptoms typically have an abrupt onset, consisting of severe headache, usually while awake, nausea and emesis, weakness or paralysis,...

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References and Readings

  1. Broderick, J., Connolly, S., Feldmann, E., et al. (2007). Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults: 2007 update: A guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, High Blood Pressure Research Council, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation, 116, e391–e413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Zia, E., Engström, G., Svensson, P. J., Norrving, B., & Pessah-Rasmussen, H. (2009). Three-year survival and stroke recurrence rates in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke, 40, 3567–3573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA