Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

  • Bruce J. DiamondEmail author
  • Joseph E. Mosley
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2158


Brain arteriovenous malformation; Cerebral malformation; Vascular malformation

Short Description or Definition

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are irregular, anomalous, abnormal, or faulty formations or structures connecting the arteries and veins (Webster 2006). Intracranial hemorrhage is a potential complication in patients with arteriovenous malformations of the brain (AMB) (Stapf et al. 2006).


AVMs arise about 3 weeks after conception, at the time when blood vessels are dividing into veins and arteries (Stein and Wolpertson 1980). It has been suggested that AVMs are dynamic and have the ability to grow, regress, and regenerate following obliteration by surgery or radiosurgery (Moftakhar et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that the altered expression of more than 900 genes is involved in the pathogenesis of AVMs (Moftakhar et al. 2009).


AVMs are the most common type of clinically significant vascular malformation, occurring almost exclusively in the...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Abecassis, I., Xu, D., Batjer, H., & Bendok, B. (2014). Natural history of brain arteriovenous malformations: A systematic review. Neurosurgical Focus, 37(3), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Shahi, R., & Warlow, C. (2001). A systematic review of the frequency and prognosis of arteriovenous malformations of the brain in adults. Brain, 124, 1900–1926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aminoff, M. J., Greenberg, D. A., & Simon, R. P. (2005). Clinical neurology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  4. Ding, D., Starke, R. M., Liu, K. C., & Crowley, R. W. (2015). Cortical plasticity in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 22(12), 1857–1861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frosch, M. P., Anthony, D. C., & De Girolami, U. (2005). The central nervous system. In V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, & N. Fausto (Eds.), Pathologic basis of disease (pp. 1347–1420). Philadelphia: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  6. Lantz, E. R., & Meyers, P. M. (2008). Neuropsychological effects of brain arteriovenous malformations. Neuropsychology Review, 18, 167–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lazar, R. M., Connaire, K., Marshall, R. S., Pile-Spellman, J., Hacein-Bey, L., Solomon, R. A., et al. (1999). Developmental deficits in adult patients with arteriovenous malformations. Archives of Neurology, 56, 103–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Moftakhar, P., Hauptman, J. S., Malkasian, D., & Martin, N. A. (2009). Cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Part 1: Cellular and molecular biology. Neurosurgical Focus, 26(5), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mohr, J., Parides, M., Stapf, C., Moquete, E., Moy, C., Overbey, J., Al-Shahi Salman, R., Vicaut, E., Young, W., Houdart, E., Cordonnier, C., Stefani, M., Hartmann, A., von Kummer, R., Biondi, A., Berkefeld, J., Klijn, C., Harkness, K., Libman, R., Barreau, X., & Moskowitz, A. (2014). Medical management with or without interventional therapy for unruptured arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA): A multicenter, non-blinded, randomized trial. Lancet, 15(383), 614–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ropper, A. H., Brown, R. H., Adams, R. D., & Victor, M. (2005). Adams & Victor’s principles of neurology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Stapf, C., Mast, H., Sciacca, R. R., Choi, J. H., Khaw, A. V., Connolly, E. S., Pile-Spellman, J., & Mohr, J. P. (2006). Predictors of hemorrhage in patients with untreated brain arteriovenous malformation. Neurology, 66(9), 1350–1355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Stein, B. M., & Wolpertson, S. M. (1980). Arteriovenous malformations of the brain. I: Current concepts and treatments. Archives of Neurology, 37, 69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Warlow, C. (2001). Stroke, transient ischemic attacks, and intracranial venous thrombosis. In M. Donaghy (Ed.), Brain’s diseases of the nervous system (pp. 775–896). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Webster. (2006). Webster’s new explorer medical dictionary (new edition). Springfield: Merriam-Webster.Google Scholar
  15. Zhao, J., Wang, S., Li, J., Qi, W., Sui, D., & Zhao, Y. (2005). Clinical characteristics and surgical results of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Surgical Neurology, 63, 156–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA