Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Michele L. ZaccarioEmail author
  • Robert M. Gordon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_2007


Comprehensive system (CS); Exner comprehensive system; Rorschach comprehensive system; Rorschach inkblot method (RIM); Rorschach performance assessment system (R-PAS)


The Rorschach (Rorschach 1921) is one of the oldest, most widely used, and most discussed performance-based assessment measures in existence today. It consists of ten ambiguous inkblot designs, upon which examinees are encouraged to articulate perceptions that are later analyzed using psychologically and scientifically derived interpretation methods (Weiner 1997, 1998; Weiner 2003).

In 1974, John Exner developed the Comprehensive System (CS) for administration, scoring, and interpretation. This system borrowed features from the various Rorschach systems already in use (see Exner 1969 and Exner 2003 for a review) and provided enough new empirical and standardization data to satisfy many contemporary scientific critics (Wood et al. 1996). The various editions of the Comprehensive System (1974, 1993, 2003...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyPace University, Dyson College of Arts and SciencesNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Rusk RehabilitationNew York University Langone Medical CenterNew YorkUSA