Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Geriatric Depression Scale

  • Christina SalamaEmail author
  • Jennifer Linton Reesman
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1986

Synonyms

GDS; Mood assessment scale

Description

The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report measure of depressive symptoms experienced by the respondent during the past week using a yes/no response format. For 20 items a “yes” response indicates depressive symptomatology and for 10 items a “no” response does so. The items are summed (one point per item) to provide a total score ranging from 0 to 30. Administration time typically ranges from 5 to 10 min. Items may be read to visually challenged or reading-impaired respondents, and telephone administration appears to yield valid and reliable results (Burke et al. 1995).

Historical Background

The GDS was developed in two studies (Brink et al. 1982; Yesavage et al. 1983) to minimize misdiagnosis of depression in the elderly by omitting somatic symptoms that may be common among nondepressed elderly (e.g., sleep disturbance, appetite changes). An additional goal was to develop a measure of depressive symptoms that was...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Almeida, O. P., & Almeida, S. A. (1999). Short versions of the geriatric depression scale: A study of their validity for the diagnosis of a major depressive episode according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 858–865.  https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1166(199910)14:10%3C858::aid-gps35%3E3.0.co;2-8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Brink, T. L., Yesavage, J. A., Lum, O., Heersema, P. H., Adey, M., & Rose, T. S. (1982). Screening tests for geriatric depression. Clinical Gerontologist, 1, 37–43.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J018v01n01_06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burke, W. J., Roccaforte, W. H., Wengel, S. P., Conley, D. M., & Potter, J. F. (1995). The reliability and validity of the geriatric depression rating scale administered by telephone. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43, 674–679.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1995.tb07205.x.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2004). Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. McDowell, I. (2006). Measuring health: A guide to rating scales and questionnaires (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Pocklington, C., Gilbody, S., Manea, L., & McMillan, D. (2016). The diagnostic accuracy of brief versions of the geriatric depression scale: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4407.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Roger, P. R., & Johnson-Greene, D. (2009). Comparison of assessment measures for post-stroke depression. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 780–793.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13854040802691135.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Rule, B. G., Harvey, H. Z., & Dobbs, A. R. (1989). Reliability of the geriatric depression scale for younger adults. Clinical Gerontologist, 9, 37–43.  https://doi.org/10.1300/j018v09n02_05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sheikh, J. I., & Yesavage, J. A. (1986). Geriatric depression scale (GDS): Recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 165–173.  https://doi.org/10.1300/j018v05n01_09.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. S., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M. B., et al. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression rating scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 37–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kennedy Krieger Institute/Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA