Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Mental Status Examination

  • Shahal RozenblattEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_198




The mental status examination (MSE) is a semi-structured interview that is often done during the initial meeting with the patient. It is the only formal procedure for assessing cognitive functioning during a psychiatric or neurologic examination (Fischer et al. 2004).

Regardless of the version used, the MSE typically covers the following aspects of patient behavior (Fischer et al. 2004):
  • Appearance includes the patient’s dress, grooming, comportment, facial expression, eye contact and mannerisms.

  • Orientation concerns the patient’s awareness of time, place, and person.

  • Speech involves observations about content and delivery. The examiner attends to the rate, tone, articulation, and phrasing of the delivery. Grammar and articulation are also important as deviations (e.g., perseveration and dysnomia).

  • Thought processinvolves the characteristic thinking style of the patient (e.g., lucid and able to maintain the associative threads vs. thought disorder and mental...

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Further Readings

  1. Alagiakrishnan, K., Zhao, N., Mereu, L., Senior, P., & Senthilselvan, A. (2013). Montreal cognitive assessment is superior to standardized Mini-Mental Status Exam in detecting mild cognitive impairment in the middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BioMed Research International, 2013, 186106.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Besson, P. S., & Labbe, E. E. (1997). Use of the modified Mini-Mental State Examination in children. Journal of Child Neurology, 12, 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blessed, G., Tomlinson, B. E. and Roth, M. (1968). The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 797–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fischer, J. S., Hannay, H. J., Loring, D. W., & Lezak, M. D. (2004). Observational methods, rating scales, and inventories. In M. D. Lezak (Ed.), Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Grace, J., Nadler, J. D., White, D. A., Giuilmette, T. J., et al. (1995). Folstein vs modified Mini-Mental State Examination in geriatric stroke: Stability, validity, and screening utility. Archives of Neurology, 52, 477–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kaufman, D. M. (1991). Clinical neurology for psychiatrists (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  7. Kim, T. H., Jhoo, J. H., Park, J. H., Kim, J. L., Ryu, S. H., & Moon, S. W. (2010). Korean version of Mini Mental Status Examination for dementia screening and its’ short form. Psychiatry Investigation, 7, 102–108.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Lezak, M. D. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Sikaroodi, H., Yadegari, S., & Miri, S. R. (2013). Cognitive impairments in patients with cerebrovascular risk factors: A comparison of Mini Mental Status Exam and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 115, 1276–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Teng, E. L., & Chui, H. C. (1987). The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 314–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Psychological Assessment P. C.SmithtownUSA