Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Gene-Environment Interaction

  • Rohan PalmerEmail author
  • Martin Hahn
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1865


A gene-environment (G-E) interaction refers to the susceptibility of genotypes to different environmental circumstances. In biometrical genetics, it is akin to a statistical interaction such that genetic effects on a phenotype vary as a function of the levels of an environmental variable.

Current Knowledge

Genotype environment interaction refers to changes in the role of genetic factors under different environments. In genetics, this can be visualized as changes in the genetic effect ( heritability) on a trait under different environmental conditions (Figs. 1 and 2). In the figures, the evidence of a G-E interaction is that the genetic effect is greater among individuals at the higher end of the environmental measure. Many behaviors and disorders result from the combination of genetic factors and environmental factors, and possibly, their interactions. This has contradicted the early deterministic view of genetics and has opened the door to promising interventions that...
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References and Readings

  1. Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., et al. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301, 386–389.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Donnelly, P. (2008). Progress and challenges in genome-wide association studies in humans. Nature Genetics, 456, 728–731.Google Scholar
  3. Eaves, L. J. (2006). Genotype x environment interaction in psychopathology: Fact or artefact? Twin Research and Human Genetics, 8, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA