Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Disability Rating Scale

  • Jerry WrightEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1802


DRS; Rappaport DRS


The disability rating scale (DRS) was developed as a measure of disability that would be applicable to individuals with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury at a wide range of functional levels from coma through community living. The DRS has been recommended as a primary outcome measure for clinical trials involving individuals with brain injury.

The DRS is an 8-item measure (each rated on a 3–5-point scale) that is summed to give a total score. The DRS addresses all three categories of functioning proposed by the World Health Organization (body function, activity, and participation). The first three items of the DRS (eye opening, communication ability, and motor response) reflect body function. The next three items (cognitive ability for feeding, toileting, and grooming) relate to activity. The last two items (level of functioning and employability) reflect participation. By addressing all three categories of functioning, the measure is...

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References and Readings

  1. Hall, K. M., Hamilton, B. B., Gordon, W. A., & Zasler, N. D. (1993). Characteristics and comparisons of functional assessment indices: Disability rating scale, functional independence measure, and functional assessment measure. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, 60–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hall, K. M., Mann, N., High Jr., W. M., Wright, J., Kreutzer, J. S., & Wood, D. (1996). Functional measures after traumatic brain injury: Ceiling effects of FIM, FIM+FAM, DRS, and CIQ. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 11, 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hall, K. M., Bushnik, T., Lakisic-Kazazic, B., Wright, J., & Cantagallo, A. (2001). Assessing traumatic brain injury outcome measures for long-term follow-up of community-based individuals. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 367–374.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hammond, F. M., Grattan, K. D., Sasser, H., Corrigan, J. D., Bushnik, T., & Zafonte, R. D. (2001). Long-term recovery course after traumatic brain injury: A comparison of the functional independence measure and the disability rating scale. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 16, 318–329.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Hammond, F. M., Grattan, K. D., Sasser, H., Corrigan, J. D., Rosenthal, M., Bushnik, T., & Shull, W. (2004). Five years after traumatic brain injury: A study of individual outcomes and predictors of change in function. NeuroRehabilitation, 19, 25–35.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Malec, J. F., Hammond, F. M., Giacino, J. T., Whyte, J., & Wright, J. (2012). Structured interview to improve the reliability and psychometric integrity of the disability rating scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93, 1603–1608.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Rappaport, M., Hall, K. M., Hopkins, K., Belleza, T., & Cope, D. N. (1982). Disability rating scale for severe head trauma: Coma to community. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 63, 118–123.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rehabilitation Research CenterSanta Clara Valley Medical CenterSan JoseUSA