Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Deep Brain Stimulator (Parkinson’s)

  • Cindy B. IvanhoeEmail author
  • Ana Durand Sanchez
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_18

Synonyms

Activa®; Deep brain stimulation (DBS); Kinetra®

Definition

Bilateral implantation of electrode leads into target areas of the brain to treat movement disorders and other disorders.

Current Knowledge

DBS was first performed in 1987 to treat tremor of Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor. The exact mechanism of action for DBS is unknown, though it is likely related to the inhibition/blockade of excitatory membrane potentials. In Parkinson’s disease, leads are usually implanted in the subthalamic nucleus and internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi). The procedure is performed with stereotactic localization of the selected nuclei and can be performed in one or two surgeries depending on regional preferences and standard of care. DBS is now being used to treat or being studied for the treatment of dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome, pain, and depression. DBS has been reported in recent studies to affect the neurophysiology of persons with disorders of...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurorehabilitation Specialists Baylor College of MedicineThe Institute for Rehabilitation and ResearchHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Physical Medicine and RehabilitationBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA