Deep Brain Stimulator (Parkinson’s)
Activa®; Deep brain stimulation (DBS); Kinetra®
Bilateral implantation of electrode leads into target areas of the brain to treat movement disorders and other disorders.
DBS was first performed in 1987 to treat tremor of Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor. The exact mechanism of action for DBS is unknown, though it is likely related to the inhibition/blockade of excitatory membrane potentials. In Parkinson’s disease, leads are usually implanted in the subthalamic nucleus and internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi). The procedure is performed with stereotactic localization of the selected nuclei and can be performed in one or two surgeries depending on regional preferences and standard of care. DBS is now being used to treat or being studied for the treatment of dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome, pain, and depression. DBS has been reported in recent studies to affect the neurophysiology of persons with disorders of...