Ashworth Spasticity Scale (and Modified Version)
The Ashworth Scale (AS) and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) measure spasticity. During the administration of both AS (Ashworth 1964) and MAS (Bohannon and Smith 1987), the examiner passively moves the joint being tested and rates the perceived level of resistance in the muscle groups opposing the movement. Both scales are single-item measures ranging from 0 to 4, where 0 indicates no increase in muscle tone and 4 indicates that the affected part is rigid in flexion or extension. The AS is considered an ordinal scale, whereas the MAS is considered a nominal scale due to ambiguity created by the addition of the 1+ grade between 1 and 2 (Pandyan et al. 1999).
References and Readings
- Lance, J. W. (1980). Symposium synopsis. In R. G. Feldman, R. R. Young, & W. P. Koella (Eds.), Spasticity: Disordered motor control (pp. 485–494). Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers.Google Scholar