Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Antidepressants

  • Joshua M. MatyiEmail author
  • JoAnn Tschanz
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1771

Definition

Antidepressants are a class of medications that are used primarily in the treatment of clinically severe mood and anxiety disorders. The majority of effective antidepressants currently in use enhance neurotransmission of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Generally, this is achieved by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitter substance(s), inhibiting the enzymes responsible for its metabolism, or directly stimulating the postsynaptic receptors (Iversen et al. 2009). Several antidepressants are also used in treating generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bourin and Lambert 2002). Other conditions for which antidepressants have demonstrated efficacy include eating disorders (Powers and Bruty 2009), neuropathic pain (O’Connor and Dworkin 2009), stress incontinence, nocturnal enuresis, ejaculatory disorders (Michel et al. 2006), migraine headaches, fibromyalgia (Stone et al. 2003), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Chung et...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Bourin, M., & Lambert, O. (2002). Pharmacotherapy of anxious disorders. Human Psychopharmacol clin Exp, 17, 383–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chung, B., Suzuki, A. R., & McGough, J. J. (2002). New drugs for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opinion Emerging Drugs, 7, 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dale, E., Bang-Andersen, B., & Sánchez, C. (2015). Emerging mechanisms and treatments for depression beyond SSRIs and SNRIs. Biochemical pharmacology, 95(2), 81–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fournier, J. C., DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Dimidjian, S., Amsterdam, J. D., Shelton, R. C., & Fawcett, J. (2010). Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: A patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA, 303, 47–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gibbons, R. D., Brown, C. H., Hur, K., Davis, J. M., & Mann, J. J. (2012). Suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant treatment: Reanalysis of the randomized placebo-controlled studies of fluoxetine and venlafaxine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(6), 580–587.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grant, J. E., & Grosz, R. (2004). Pharmacotherapy outcome in older pathological gamblers: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 17, 9–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Horstmann, S., & Binder, E. B. (2009). Pharmacogenomics of antidepressant drugs. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 124, 57–73.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Isacsson, G., & Rich, C. L. (2014). Antidepressant drugs and the risk of suicide in children and adolescents. Pediatric Drugs, 16(2), 115–122.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iversen, L. L., Iversen, S. D., Bloom, F. E., & Roth, R. H. (2009). Antidepressants and anxiolytics. Introduction to neuropsychopharmacology (pp. 306–335). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kirsch, I., Deacon, B. J., Huedo-Medina, T. B., Scoboria, A., Moore, T. J., & Johnson, B. T. (2008). Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: A meta-analysis of data submitted to the food and drug administration. PlOS Medicine, 5, e45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Michel, M. C., Ruhe, H. G., de Groot, A. A., Castro, R., & Oelke, M. (2006). Tolerability of amine uptake inhibitors in urologic diseases. Current Drug Safety, 1, 73–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. O’Connor, A. B., & Dworkin, R. H. (2009). Treatment of neuropathic pain: An overview of recent guidelines. Am Journal of Medicine, 122, S22–S32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Powers, P. S., & Bruty, H. (2009). Pharmacotherapy for eating disorders and obesity. Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18, 175–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rihmer, Z., & Akiskal, H. (2006). Do antidepressants t(h)reat(en) depressives? Toward a clinical judicious formulation of the antidepressant-suicidality FDA advisory in light of declining national suicide statistics from many countries. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 3–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Skolnick, P., Popik, P., & Trullas, R. (2009). Glutamate-based antidepressants: 20 years on. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 30, 563–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Stone, K. J., Viera, A. J., & Parman, C. L. (2003). Off-label applications for SSRIs. American Family Physician, 68, 498–504.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Strawn, J. R., Welge, J. A., Wehry, A. M., Keeshin, B., & Rynn, M. A. (2015). Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in pediatric anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 32(3), 149–157.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2007). FDA proposes new warnings about suicidal thinking, behaviour in young adults who take antidepressant medications. Retrieved from: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2007/ucm108905.htm

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Utah State UniversityLoganUSA