Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Extrapyramidal Symptoms

  • Marla SanzoneEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1764


EPS; Extrapyramidal adverse reactions; Extrapyramidal disease; Extrapyramidal side effects; Parkinsonian movements


“Extrapyramidal” refers to the nerve fibers outside the pyramidal tracts of the central nervous system. The term extrapyramidal symptoms refers to the neurological adverse effects from antipsychotic medications that mimic the characteristics of extrapyramidal disease. Pharmacological agents that decrease dopamine neurotransmission other than neuroleptics can produce extrapyramidal symptoms as well, though neuroleptics, particularly those that block D2receptors, are most often responsible for causing extrapyramidal adverse reactions. Standard practice when administering conventional antipsychotic medication is augmentation with anticholinergic agents such as benztropine (Cogentin) that block striatal cholinergic receptors can help regulate cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission reducing the severity of extrapyramidal side effects...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent Practice, Loyola College of MarylandAnnapolisUSA