Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Tmax

  • Nadia Webb
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1753

Synonyms

Time to reach peak concentration

Definition

Plasma concentrations reflect a time curve from the administration of a drug through its peak effect and eventual elimination. The time to peak concentration is of pragmatic importance because it varies between individuals and can be manipulated through the various routes of administration (e.g., oral, IV, and topical) or via the modifications to the mechanism of drug delivery. Thalidomide, for example, has an average Tmax of 4 h; however, the time to reach peak concentration can vary between 1 and 7 h (Figg et al. 1999).

Tmax is often related to the length of a drug’s half-life (t½). Drugs with short half-lives tend to peak and eliminate quickly, often requiring more frequent dosing to maintain a drug within its clinically effective therapeutic range. “New” drugs within a class often reflect alterations in the delivery system rather than changes to a drug itself, such as sustained release preparations that alter the speed with...

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References and Readings

  1. Brunton, L. B., Lazo, J. S., & Parker, K. L. (Eds.). (2005). Goodman & Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics (11th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Figg, W. D., Raje, S., Bauer, K. S., Tompkins, A., Venzon, D. R., Bergan, R., et al. (1999). Pharmacokinetics of thalidomide in an elderly prostate cancer population. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 88(1), 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Stahl, S. M. (2008). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s Hospital of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA