Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Maya BalamaneEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1747


Drug biotransformation


Pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology that studies the rate and processing of drugs within the body. Specifically, it monitors the drug upon entry, movement through, and then out of the body. This can be described as the time course of the drug and is monitored via the absorption, bioavailability, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of that drug. The kinetics of the drug effects determines the onset, duration, and intensity of the drug’s effect. Drug pharmacokinetics depends on patient-related factors (genetic makeup, sex, age, etc.) and the drug’s chemical properties, and these factors can be used to predict the pharmacologic response of some populations.


References and Readings

  1. Crofford, B. (1987). Drugs and the elderly. Neuropsychology, 1(2), 59–62.Google Scholar
  2. Higgins, N., Zingman, B., Slish, J., Reichman, R., Fischl, M., Gripshover, B., et al. (2007). Factors associated with altered pharmacokinetics in substance users and non-substance users receiving lopinavir and atazanavir. American Journal on Addictions, 16(6), 488–494.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Nishikawa, H., Inoue, T., Masui, T., Izumi, T., Nakagawa, S., & Koyama, T. (2008). Pharmacokinetic interaction between tandospirone and fluvoxamine in the rat contextual conditioned fear stress model and its functional consequence: Involvement of cytochrome P450 3A4. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(5), 591–596.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA