Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Maya BalamaneEmail author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1746


Drug impact


Pharmacodynamics is a branch of pharmacology that studies how a drug acts on a living organism, including the pharmacologic response and the duration and magnitude of that response observed relative to the drug concentration. The drug interactions involve receptor binding, receptor sensitivity, postreceptor effects, and other related chemical reactions. Pharmacodynamics, along with pharmacokinetics, helps explain the relationship between the dose and the response of a particular drug. The pharmacodynamics of a drug can be altered by disorders, aging, and other chemicals or drugs. Physiological changes associated with the aging body can alter the response to medications. Changes in both the production of neurotransmitters and receptor sensitivity have the potential to lead to adverse reactions that are at times unpredictable. Thus, as receptor sensitivity or availability is altered, the drug effect is altered as well.


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References and Readings

  1. Bush, S. S., & Martin, T. A. (2012). Geriatric psychopharmacology. Geriatric Neuropsychology Practice Essentials, 15(1), 401.Google Scholar
  2. Franz, S. (1919). Review of vegetative neurology. Psychological Bulletin, 16(12), 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Maruff, P., Werth, J., Giordani, B., Caveney, A., Feltner, D., & Snyder, P. (2006). A statistical approach for classifying change in cognitive function in individuals following pharmacologic challenge: An example with alprazolam. Psychopharmacology, 186(1), 7–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Balamane
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie A. Kolakowsky-Hayner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mount Sinai Brain Injury Research CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA