Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Cristy Akins
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1720

Generic Name


Brand Name



Tricyclic antidepressant.

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.


Depression, endogenous depression.

Off-Label Use

Anxiety, insomnia, neuropathic pain, chronic pain, and depression (treatment-resistant).

Side Effects


QTc prolongation, seizures, lowered seizure threshold, liver failure, hyperthermia, increased intraocular pressure, orthostatic hypertension, arrhythmias, tachycardia, and sudden death.


Blurred vision, constipation, fatigue, sedation, headache, diarrhea, heartburn, appetite disturbance, weight gain, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, sweating, and rash.

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential Psychopharmacology: The Prescriber’s Guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Courtney
    • 1
  • Cristy Akins
    • 2
  • Efrain Antonio Gonzalez
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.Mercy Family CenterMetarieUSA
  3. 3.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  4. 4.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA