Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Coma Recovery Scale

  • Mark A. SandbergEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_172


CRS; CRS-R; JFK coma recovery scale


The Coma Recovery Scale (CRS-R) is a 23-item instrument used to assist with differential diagnosis, prognostic assessment, and treatment planning with patients having disorders of consciousness.

Current Knowledge

The Coma Recovery Scale was initially developed by Giacino and colleagues in 1991 and then revised in 2004 and re-named the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (Giacino et al. 2004). The scale was developed with the goal of helping to identify neurobehavioral characteristics of persons diagnosed with disorders of consciousness, allowing for refined decision-making concerning treatment and prognosis. In its revised form, the CRS-R is composed of 23 items, which are assigned into six subscales addressing auditory, visual, motor, oromotor, communication, and arousal functions. Each subscale is composed of hierarchically arranged items associated with the brain stem, subcortical, and cortical processes. Items receiving higher...

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References and Readings

  1. Estraneo, A., Moretta, P., Cardinale, V., DeTanti, A., Gatta, G., Giacino, J. T., & Trojano, L. (2015). A multicentre study of intentional behavioural responses measured using the coma recovery scale-revised in patients with minimally conscious state. Clinical Rehabilitation, 29(8), 803–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Giacino, J. T., Kalmar, K., & Whyte, J. (2004). The JFK coma recovery scale-revised: Measurement characteristics and diagnostic utility. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(12), 2020–2029.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kalmar, K., & Giacino, J. (2005). The JFK coma recovery scale-revised. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15(3–4), 454–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. The CRS-R, including administration and scoring information and rating forms, is available as a PDF file at www.tbims.org/combi/crs/index.html

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NeuropsychologyNorthport VA Medical CenterSmithtownUSA