Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1695

Generic Name


Brand Name



Antipsychotics, first generation

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Blocks dopamine 2 receptors in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine pathways. The former explains the tic-suppressing activity and the latter its antipsychotic properties.


Treatment of Tourette’s syndrome

Off-Label Use

Antipsychotic use for patients refractory to other agents

Side Effects


Rare neuroleptic malignant syndrome and seizures. Increased risk for elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. There is evidence of a dose-dependent QTc prolongation, risks for ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death syndrome.


Akathisia, extrapyramidal symptoms, Parkinsonism, hypotension, sedation, dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, sexual dysfunction, weight gain, galactorrhea, and amenorrhea

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA