Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1679

Generic Name


Brand Name



Wake promoting

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Unknown. Hypothesized to enhance hypothalamically mediated wakefulness via the tuberomammillary bodies and activates hypothalamic neurons that release orexin or hypocretin. More recently, evidence suggests a similar mechanism to other catecholaminergic stimulants.


Narcolepsy and reduces sleepiness in apnea-related conditions

Off-Label Use

ADHD and fatigue

Side Effects

Headache, rhinitis, decreased appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, and nervousness


Rare and temporary changes have been noted in cardiac pacing for patients with known mitral valve prolapse or with left ventricular hypertrophy. There have also been controversial reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome.


Headache, anxiety, diarrhea, anorexia, rhinitis, pharyngitis, and mild hypertension

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA