Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action
Unknown. Hypothesized to enhance hypothalamically mediated wakefulness via the tuberomammillary bodies and activates hypothalamic neurons that release orexin or hypocretin. More recently, evidence suggests a similar mechanism to other catecholaminergic stimulants.
Narcolepsy and reduces sleepiness in apnea-related conditions
ADHD and fatigue
Headache, rhinitis, decreased appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, and nervousness
Rare and temporary changes have been noted in cardiac pacing for patients with known mitral valve prolapse or with left ventricular hypertrophy. There have also been controversial reports of Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Headache, anxiety, diarrhea, anorexia, rhinitis, pharyngitis, and mild hypertension
References and Readings
- Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.) (2017). Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
- Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Drug Interaction Effects. http://www.drugs.com/drug_interactions.html
- Drug Molecule Images. http://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/
- Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com
- Gene-Based Estimate of Drug interactions. http://mhc.daytondcs.com:8080/cgi-bin/ddiD4?ver=4&task=getDrugList
- Pill Identification. http://www.drugs.com/pill_identification.html