Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1669

Generic Name


Brand Name

Keppra XR, Spritam



Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Binds to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A and inhibits the activity of negative modulator of GABA and glycine-gated channels; it inhibits N-type calcium current within the neuron.


Adjunct treatment of partial seizures.

Off-Label Use

Neuropathic pain/chronic pain; mania.

Side Effects

Asthenia, headache, infection, increased blood pressure, drowsiness, fatigue, anorexia, weakness, and nasopharyngitis.


Suicidal ideation (rare).


Sedation, dizziness, ataxia, asthenia, decreased red blood cell/hemoglobin count, agitation.

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ Desk Reference (62nd ed.) (2007). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA