Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Epinephrine

  • Marla SanzoneEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1654

Synonyms

Adrenalin; Adrenaline

Indications

Epinephrine (E), also called adrenalin, is a sympathomimetic monoamine neurotransmitter that acts as a hormone. It is a catecholamine, derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, and released from the adrenal medulla. In 1895, the Polish physiologist, Napoleon Cybulski discovered E in the adrenal gland. In 1901, a Japanese chemist, Jokichi Takamine, isolated the same hormone from cow glands. And in 1904, Friedrich Stolz first artificially synthesized E.

E shares common pathways with catecholamines, dopamine, and norepinephrine. During times of stress, the splanchnic nerves in the adrenal medulla stimulate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to release E and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH activates the adrenal cortex to produce the stress-reactive hormone, cortisol. This process interacts with the synthesis of E. Tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine to l-dopa. L-dopa synthesizes dopamine via dopa decarboxylase, and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Epinephrine. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved January 13, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Epinephrine
  2. Epinephrine. (2009a). In MedicineNet. Retrieved January 13, 2009, from http://www.medterms.com
  3. Epinephrine. (2009b). In Wikipedia. Retrieved January 13, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/epinephrine
  4. Hoffman, B. B. (2004). Adrenoceptor-activating & other sympathomimetic drugs. In B. Katzung (Ed.), Basic and clinical pharmacology (9th ed., pp. 122–141). New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Katzung, B. G. (2004). Introduction to autonomic pharmacology. In B. Katzung (Ed.), Basic and clinical pharmacology (9th ed., pp. 75–93). New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  6. Lu, D. (2009). Sites of drugs acting at the adrenergic synapses. In PHAR 402. Retrieved January 21, 2009, from http://www.uic.edu/classes/phar/phar402
  7. Metabolomics Toolbox. (2009). In Human metabolome database. Retrieved January 19, 2009, from http://hmdb.ca/scripts/show_card.cgi?METABOCARD = HMDB00216.txt
  8. Nicol, R. A. (2004). Introduction to the pharmacology of CNS drugs. In B. Katzung (Ed.), Basic and clinical pharmacology (9th ed., pp. 336–350). New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent PracticeLoyola College of MarylandAnnapolisUSA