Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • JoAnn TschanzEmail author
  • Elizabeth K. Vernon
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1645


D-amphetamine; Dexedrine; Dextro-amphetamine


D-amphetamine or dextro-amphetamine is one of the two synthetic chemical forms of amphetamine. This form of amphetamine is considered more active than l-amphetamine or levo-amphetamine. D-amphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant that increases the synaptic concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters and indirectly enhances noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (Heal et al. 2013). Acute administration is associated with increased alertness, confidence, euphoria, and cognition. In animals, there is a dose-dependent effect of increasing activity such as locomotion and at higher doses, stereotyped motor behaviors. Amphetamine’s reinforcing properties and potential for abuse are thought to reflect increased dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. The drug also increases both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and increases respiration and heart rate,...

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References and Readings

  1. Feldman, R. S., Meyer, J. S., & Quenzer, L. F. (1997). Stimulants: Amphetamine and cocaine. In Principles of neuropsychoparhmacology (pp. 549–568). Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Heal, D. J., Smith, S. L., Gosden, J., & Nutt, D. J. (2013). Amphetamine, past and present – A pharmacological and clinical perspective. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 27(6), 479–496.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881113482532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Iversen, L. L., Iversen, S. D., Bloom, F. E., & Roth, R. H. (2009). Psychostimulants. In Introduction to neuropsychopharmacology (pp. 447–472). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  2. 2.Center for Epidemiologic StudiesUtah State UniversityLoganUSA