Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1638

Generic Name


Brand Name



Antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Citalopram blocks the presynaptic serotonin reuptake pump and desensitizes serotonin receptors, theoretically increasing serotonin neurotransmission. Citalopram is also a mild antihistamine.



Off-Label Use

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, alcoholism, binge eating disorder, and hot flashes

Side Effects


Seizures, mania, and suicidal ideation (all rare)


Sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal upset, insomnia, sedation, tremor, headache, dizziness, sweating, bruising and very rare bleeding, rare hyponatremia, and a potential for SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion)

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ desk reference (71st ed.). (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.medscape.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA