Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Mary Pat MurphyEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1629


Antihypertensives are pharmacologic agents used to lower blood pressure to normal levels or near normal levels. The initiation and intensity of drug treatment depends on blood pressure level, the individual’s risk factors (smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, older than 60, male, postmenopausal women, and family history of cardiovascular disease for women under 65 and men under 55 years of age), and target organ damage (e.g., strokeor TIA, nephropathy, peripheral artery disease, retinopathy) or cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risks decrease when the blood pressure is below 139/89. Typical agents for treating hypertension include diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, peripheral alpha selective blockers, central alpha2 agonists, direct vasodilators, and adrenergic antagonists.

Current Knowledge

Hypertension is a risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, congestive heart failure,...

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References and Readings

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MSN, CRRNPaoliUSA