Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1625

Generic Name


Brand Name

Elavil, Levate


Tricyclic antidepressant

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Increases available norepinephrine and serotonin, blocks serotonin reuptake, and may desensitize both serotonins 1A and beta adrenergic receptors.



Off-Label Use

Postherpetic neuralgia, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, headache, eating disorder, and insomnia.

Side Effects


Paralytic ileus, hyperthermia, lowered seizure threshold, sudden death, cardiac arrhythmias, tachycardia, QTc prolongation, hepatic failure, mania, and potential for activation of suicidal ideation.


Blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, increased appetite, dry mouth, diarrhea, heartburn, weight gain, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, sweating, rash, and itching.

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ Desk Reference, (71st ed.). (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.epocrates.com.
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software. www.medscape.com.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA