Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • John C. Courtney
  • Efrain Antonio GonzalezEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1624

Generic Name


Brand Name

Xanax, Xanax XR, Niravam


Antianxiety agents, anxiolytics, benzodiazepines

Proposed Mechanism(s) of Action

Binds to benzodiazepine receptors at the GABA-A ligand-gated channel, thus allowing for neuronal hyperpolarization. Benzodiazepines enhance the inhibitory action of GABA via boosted chloride conductance.


Generalized anxiety and panic disorder

Off-Label Use

Other anxiety disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, insomnia, adjunctive treatment in mania and psychosis, premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Side Effects


Respiratory depression, hepatic dysfunction (rare), renal dysfunction and blood dyscrasias, grand mal seizures


Sedation, fatigue, depression, dizziness, memory problems, disinhibition, confusion, ataxia, slurred speech

References and Readings

  1. Physicians’ Desk Reference (71st ed.). (2017). Montvale: Thomson PDR.Google Scholar
  2. Stahl, S. M. (2007). Essential psychopharmacology: The prescriber’s guide (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Additional Information

  1. Free Drug Online and PDA Software.: www.medscape.com
  2. Free Drug Online and PDA Software: www.epocrates.com

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Socorro Mental HealthPresbyterian Medical ServicesSocorroUSA
  2. 2.College of PsychologyNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Utah State UniversityLoganUSA