Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Autistic Disorder

  • Fred R. VolkmarEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1521

Synonyms

Autism spectrum disorder; Childhood autism; Infantile autism; Kanner’s syndrome.

Short Description/Definition

Autistic disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked problems in social interaction, communication/play, and a set of unusual behaviors related to difficulties in tolerating change in the environment. The condition is of early onset. In most cases, it appears to be congenital, but perhaps in 20% of cases, a period of normal development is observed. The condition almost always appears before 3 years of age – usually before 2 years.

Categorization

Autism was first described by Leo Kanner in 1943 (Kanner 1943). Early controversy centered around the idea that autism might be a form of schizophrenia, but several lines of evidence suggest this is not the case. Changes in approaches to the definition of autism have occurred over time. The American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR) (APA 2000) and International (ICD-10) (World Health Organization 1994)...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed., Text Rev.). Washington, DC: APA Press.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual (5th ed.). Washington, DC: APA Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bachevalier, J. (1996). Brief report: Medial temporal lobe and autism: A putative animal model in primates. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26(2), 217–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S. (1989). The theory of mind hypothesis of autism: A reply to Boucher [comment]. The British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 24(2), 199–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiang, H.-M., Tsai, L. Y., Cheung, Y. K., Brown, A., & Li, H. (2014). A meta-analysis of differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger’s disorder and high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(7), 1577–1596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Courchesne, E., Redcay, E., & Kennedy, D. P. (2004). The autistic brain: Birth through adulthood. Current Opinion in Neurology, 17(4), 489–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Happe, F. (2005). The weak central coherence account of autism. In F. R. Volkmar, A. Klin, R. Paul, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 640–649). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Howlin, P. (2005). Outcomes in autism spectrum disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, A. Klin, R. Paul, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (Vol. 2, pp. 201–222). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  10. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, R., & Cohen, D. (2002a). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(9), 809–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002b). Defining and quantifying the social phenotype in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 895–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: Lessons from autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lord, C., & Venter, A. (1992). Outcome and follow-up studies of high-functioning autistic individuals. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), High-functioning individuals with autism current issues in autism (Vol. xviii, pp. 187–199, 316). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. National Research Council. (2001). Educating young children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ozonoff, S., South, M., & Provencal, S. (2005). Executive functions. In F. R. Volkmar, A. Klin, R. Paul, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 606–627). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Presmanes Hill, A., Zuckerman, K., & Fombonne, E. (2014). Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, S. J. Rogers, & K. A. Pelphrey (Eds.), Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (p. 2). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Rutter, M. (2005). Genetic influences and autism. In F. R. Volkmar, A. Klin, R. Paul, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 425–452). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Scahill, L., & Martin, A. (2005). Psychopharmacology. In F. R. Volkmar, A. Klin, R. Paul, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (Vol. 2, pp. 1102–1122). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., & Volkmar, F. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(4), 331–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, I. C., Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. R. (2015). The effects of DSM-5 criteria on number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(8), 2541–2552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Volkmar, F. R., & Nelson, D. S. (1990). Seizure disorders in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(1), 127–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Volkmar, F., Cook, E., Jr., Pomeroy, J., Realmuto, G., & Tanguay, P. (1999). Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1611–1616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. World Health Organization. (1994). Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child Study Center, Child Psychiatry, Pediatrics and PsychologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA