Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Erin D. BiglerEmail author
  • Jo Ann Petrie
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1509


Amnion rupture; Brain stem; Congenital defects; Exencephaly; Forebrain; Lack of neural tube closure; Magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; Neural tube defects; NTD


Using “an” in front of an anatomical descriptor signifies absence. Cephalic is Greek for head with encephalon specifically referring to the brain. Therefore, the term anencephaly is used to denote a congenital defect in the development of the head, including the meninges, the cranium, and the scalp and, in particular, abnormal brain growth, with an almost completely diminished prosencephalon (telencephalon + diencephalon) or forebrain and only rudimentary development of the brain stem.


Anencephaly neural tube defects (NTD) result from the failure of closure of the headend of the neural tube in early fetal/embryolic development (first 3–4 weeks); including lack of formation of the brain, skull, and scalp (Greene and Copp 2014; Puvirajesinghe and Borg 2015; Yamaguchi and Miura 2013). Loss of the...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and the Neuroscience CenterBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA