Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Rik Carl D’AmatoEmail author
  • Carlos Bo Pang
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1479


Reading is one of the most basic and complex activities that must be acquired by the majority of all populations if they are to progress educationally. Without reading skills, individuals can only communicate verbally and the storage or preservation of knowledge becomes problematic. Thus, all advanced races must master the teaching and learning of reading and writing. Reading can be defined as a cognitive brain-based process which leads to understanding symbols representing sounds.

Many argue that reading difficulties can be attributed to genetic variance in the population. Reading has four perceptual-processing elements or components: visual, auditory, tactile/kinesthetic, and integrated abilities. Each of these elements can be evaluated. It is possible to learn to read without all of these abilities, although teaching and learning will be much more challenging. Auditory processing can be evaluated using a variety of verbal techniques such as asking an individual to make...

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References and Reading

  1. Improve-Reading-Skills.Com. (2009). Bringing scientific research to learning. Retrieved 5 Sept 2009, from http://www.improve-reading-skills.com/reading_decoding_skills.htm.
  2. Launching young readers, reading rockets. (2009). Retrieved 3 Sept 2009, from http://www.readingrockets.org/target/phonics.
  3. Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. Witsken, D., Stoeckel, A., & D’Amato, R. C. (2008). Leading educational change: Using a neuropsychological response-to-intervention approach: Linking our past, present, and future. Psychology in the Schools, 45(9), 781–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School Psychology, Clinical Neuropsychology, Clinical PsychologyThe Chicago School of Professional PsychologyChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and HumanitiesUniversity of MacauMacaoChina