Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Eric E. PiersonEmail author
  • Laura M. Vasel
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1475


Gesture to command


Apraxia; Dyspraxia

Short Description or Definition

The demonstration of an effortful ability to integrate complex and simple motor movement that required complex learning to acquire. Examples include but are not limited to the ability to mimic blowing out a match and unlocking a door (Strub and Black 2000). A progressive mental status examination involving verbal requests for specific behaviors, pantomimed behaviors, and the progressive isolation of behaviors may elicit signs indicative of possible neuroanatomical deficits. The difficulty or inability to exhibit a particular behavior may at times only occur when it is specifically intended but may continue to be present in a larger behavioral chain. In addition, the presentation of a visual cue may allow for the exhibiting of behavior otherwise not possible. Oftentimes, several similar apraxic conditions may present themselves within a single individual suggesting adjacent regions of insult or...

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References and Readings

  1. Dick, A. S., Overton, W. F., & Kovacs, S. L. (2005). The development of symbolic coordination: Representation of imagined objects, executive function, and theory of mind. Journal of Cognition and Development, 6(1), 133–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Donkervoort, M., Dekker, J., Stehmann-Saris, F. C., & Deelman, B. G. (2001). Efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia: A randomised clinical trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 11(5), 549–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. Geusgens, C. A. V., van Heugten, C. M., Coolijmans, J. P. J., Jolles, J., & van den Heuvel, W. J. A. (2007). Transfer effects of a cognitive strategy training for stroke patients with apraxia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29(8), 831–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jeste, S. S. (2011). The neurology of autism spectrum disorders. Current Opinion in Neurology, 24(2), 132–139.  https://doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283446450.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lezak, M. D., Howieson, D. B., & Loring, D. W. (2012). Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Strub, R. L., & Black, F. W. (1981). Neurobehavioral disorders: A clinical approach. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.Google Scholar
  9. Strub, R. L., & Black, F. W. (2000). The mental status examination in neurology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyBall State UniversityMuncieUSA