Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

2018 Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test II

  • Scott L. DeckerEmail author
  • Rachel M. Bridges
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-57111-9_1439


Bender-Gestalt, Second Edition; BG-II


The Bender-Gestalt test was first published in 1938, as a brief measure of visual-motor functioning. As with any measure, research identifies various measurement, scoring, and standardization issues. Recent research culminated in the revision of the test, the Bender-Gestalt, Second Edition (BG-II), which was revised by Brannigan and Decker in 2003. The BG-II maintains many historical properties that appealed to clinicians, while improving the psychometric adequacy of the test. The BG-II is divided into two phases: copy and recall. The copy phase requires the duplication of 16 geometric images, shown sequentially on separate 3 × 5 cards, onto a blank piece of paper with a No. 2 pencil. The recall phase involves drawing these images from memory on a new sheet of paper. Using the Global Scoring System, the drawing productions are rated on a 5-point scale based on the similarity to the original image and yield percentile ranks,...

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References and Readings

  1. Bender, L. (1938). A visual motor Gestalt test and its clinical use. New York: American Orthopsychiatric Association.Google Scholar
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  3. Decker, S. L., Allen, R., & Choca, J. P. (2006). Construct validity of the Bender-Gestalt II: Comparison with Wechsler intelligence scale for children III. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102, 113–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA